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2022 Vol. 43 Issue 3

### 2022 Vol. 43, No. 3

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2022, 43(3): 1-12. doi: 10.12172/202202240002
Abstract:
Natural secondary forest is the main forest type formed after natural forest harvesting, which is significantly different from primary forest and artificial forest in many aspects, such as species composition and structure, forest growth and productivity, stand environment and ecological function. Therefore, it is of great significance for biodiversity protection, ecological security, ecological barrier construction and ecological civilization construction in China to study the effects of human disturbance on species composition, tree growth, regeneration and community structure of secondary forest community. On the basis of extensive collection of the latest literature on secondary forest research at home and abroad, the impact of human disturbance on forest growth, species composition and community structure of natural secondary forest were discussed, and the positive role of human disturbance in improving the quality of natural secondary forest were expounded. In the end, the future research direction of the influence of human disturbance on the succession process of natural secondary was put forward, providing scientific basis for the protection and restoration of natural secondary forest, ecosystem management and multi-objective management in China.
2022, 43(3): 13-19. doi: 10.12172/202203020001
Abstract:
Based on the survey data of 211 Quercus natural forests in East Hengduan Mountains, the growth curve of the relationship between the average height and age of dominant trees was fitted with 8 common equations, and the best result was H = 13.89417 / （1 + 4.06553e−0.07257A）, which was used as the guide curve. A total of 6 position index curves of 8-18m were derived with 40 years as the base age and 2 m as the position index step, and the standard deviation adjustment method was used to form the site index table. The test results showed that there was no significant difference between the theoretical value and the actual value of tree height （\begin{document}${\chi ^2}$\end{document}<\begin{document}$\chi _{0.05}^2$\end{document}）, indicating that the accuracy of the compiled site index table was high, and the accuracy of dropping point test was as high as 97.18%. The results also showed that the compiled site index table had strong applicability and could accurately reflect the site quality of Quercus natural forest in the study area. The data participating in the compilation were distributed in five age groups, and the research results could objectively reflect the status and quality of Quercus natural forest at different growth stages in the study area.
2022, 43(3): 20-24. doi: 10.12172/202204070004
Abstract:
By measuring the whole process of vegetation restoration in seven debris flow sites of Huangbengliu Gully, the species composition, photosynthesis, biomass and productivity in different stages were quantified as the main indicators of the vegetation restoration. The intrinsic relationship of each indicator was analyzed, and the whole picture of natural restoration of Abies fabri natural forest were summarized and analyzed, which will provide a full sequence for ecosystem restoration and reconstruction This will provide a complete sequence reference for ecosystem restoration and reconstruction.
2022, 43(3): 25-35. doi: 10.12172/202112260001
Abstract:
From March 2017 to July 2021, the diversity of large and medium-sized mammals in the Xiaozhaizigou National Nature Reserve and its surrounding areas were continuously monitored by infrared camera technology according to the kilometer grid sampling scheme in Sichuan province. During the research period, with an intensive survey effort of 71593 efficient camera days at 230 locations (126 grids), a total of 28707 photographs and videos and 6071 independent and effective records of wild mammals were collected. A total of 22 wild mammal species belonging to 13 families and 4 orders were identified. Among them, 4 species were national I-class protected wild animals and 10 species were national II-class protected wild animals. Two species were evaluated as Endangered (EN), six species were Vulnerable (VU) and two species were Near threatened (NT) by IUCN Red List. The recorded Siberian Weasel (Mustela sibirica) was a new record in the nature reserve. The results showed that the distribution grid number of 18 species, including Chinese Goral (Naemorhedus griseus), Wild Boar (Sus scrofa), Himalayan Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus) and Golden Snub-nosed Monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana), was not less than 10, and the corresponding grid occupancy rate and relative abundance index RAI were in the forefront. A large number of mammal species (18~20 species) were recorded in different functional areas of the nature reserve. There were many kinds of mammal species (7-13 species) clustered in different functional areas of the nature reserve and most of them had cross-altitude moving activities. The results of this study showed that the resources of rare and endangered wild mammals in the monitoring area were rich, the population number was large and the distribution was wide. To some extent, it indicated that the conservation work of the reserve had been effective for many years.
2022, 43(3): 36-43. doi: 10.12172/202109070002
Abstract:
From July 2017 to June 2018, the infrared camera was uesd to continuously monitor the wild Sichuan Takin (Budorcas tibetanus) in Tangjiahe National Nature Reserve and analyze its activity rhythm. During the study period, a total of 16,840 effective camera working days and 62 camera sites of the distribution of Sichuan Takin were recorded and a total of 1455 independent and effective records were obtained (267 in spring, 158 in summer, 823 in autumn and 207 in winter). The kernel density estimation and coefficient of overlap were used to analyze the daily activity rhythm of Sichuan Takin. The results showed that: (1) There were two activity peaks in the daily activity rhythm of Sichuan Takin in different seasons (spring: 06:50—09:10, 14:50—19:50; summer: 06:50—08:00, 14:50—20:10; autumn: 07:10—10:00, 15:30—19:00; winter: 08:50—09:40,14:40—19:50), and all distributed in the morning and evening. (2) The peak activity of Sichuan Takin in the morning was autumn (2.83 h) > spring (2.33 h) > summer (1.67 h) > winter (0.83 h), while the peak activity in the evening was summer (5.33 h) > winter (5.17 h) > spring (5 h) > autumn (3.5 h). (3) There were seasonal changes in the activity rhythm of Sichuan Takin, among which there were significant differences between spring and autumn, spring and summer, and summer and autumn (P<0.05), while there were no significant differences among other seasons. The overlap index was highest in spring and summer (Δ=0.922), and lowest in autumn and winter (Δ=0.829). The activity of Sichuan Takin was diurnal, mainly in the daytime with only a few activity traces at night.
2022, 43(3): 44-52. doi: 10.12172/202109020002
Abstract:
In order to understand spatial pattern and interspecific association of dominant populations in secondary savanna shrub forest in dry-hot valley, a 1 hm2 permanent sample plot was established in Panzhihua Cycas panzhihuaensis National Nature Reserve. The individual plants of all populations in the sample plot were investigated per tree, the dominant population composition of the community was analyzed by the important values, and the spatial pattern, interspecific association, and relationships of aggregation scale and dominance of dominant populations in community were executed by using function O-ring and software SPSS. The results showed that the dominant species in the secondary savanna shrub forest in dry-hot valleys were trees or small trees except Cycas panzhihuaensis. The spatial distribution pattern of the six dominant populations was all random distribution, which was followed by aggregation distribution, and the proportion of uniform distribution scale was the smallest. The dominance of population increased with the increase of aggregation scale, and there was a positive linear correlation between them. The regression equation was y = (127.49 ± 9.04)x + (4.78 ± 1.88) (Adj-R2 = 0.98, P = 1.46993E-4 < 0.01). The proportion of interspecific correlation scale was the largest in non-correlation, followed by negative correlation and the smallest in positive correlation. The dominance of populations in community was determined by aggregation scale, which was also the main driving force to change dominant position of populations in community. The main survival pressure of Terminalia franchetii was from C. panzhihuaensis and Morus mongolica, which was also easily affected by community environment. The main reason for regulating twice of intraspecific density was interspecific competition from Quercus cocciferoides and M. mongolica, as well as T. franchetii and M. mongolica.
2022, 43(3): 53-59. doi: 10.12172/202108270001
Abstract:
In order to comprehensively clarify the river network characteristics and spatial distribution pattern, and assist the urban planning and construction of beautiful and livable park city in Chengdu. Based on 30 m resolution raster DEM data, the digital river network was extracted and its characteristics and spatial distribution patterns were discussed The results showed that the threshold value of the optimal catchment area for river network extraction in Chengdu was 7.02 km2, with a total river network of 5 levels and a total river length of 4949.75 km, among which 71.30% were healthy meandering rivers. The average river network density of the whole city was 0.35 km/km2, and the average river meander coefficient was 1.39. The quantitative characteristics of river networks in different basins and geomorphic types showed different degrees of difference. The spatial distribution of river network in the whole city increased with the increase of river network level, and the aggregation degree also increased. The curved river channel was more widely distributed and more uniform than the straight river channel. The evenness of river network distribution in Minjiang river basin in west was higher than that in Tuojiang river basin in northeast. Under different geomorphic types, the density of river network was the most dense in plain, followed by hills and mountains.
2022, 43(3): 60-66. doi: 10.12172/202111240003
Abstract:
In order to summarize the research status of mammal species diversity and geographical distribution in China's provinces （autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government） based on infrared camera technology, and to clarify the research blank or less research areas, so as to provide a basis for formulating relative protection, monitoring and management plans. Using the literature retrieval method, the relevant literature of wildlife diversity investigation and research in Chinese territory based on infrared camera by scholars from various countries was systematically collected and sorted out. The results showed that at least 208 wild mammal species were recorded by infrared cameras in China, belonging to 11 orders and 37 families, accounting for 30.06% of the total mammal species in China. At present, the mammal species diversity monitoring research by infrared camera in China has basically covered the whole country. Among the 34 provinces （autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government）, 32 provinces （autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government） have recorded animal species investigation based on infrared cameras, but most of them are concentrated in the southwest and northeast regions. According to the number of research sites, the number of documents and the proportion of mammal species recorded by infrared camera in the total number of species in each province （autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government）, Chongqing, Liaoning, Jiangsu, Fujian, Inner Mongolia, Taiwan and Shanghai have potential investigation values. There is still some room for improvement of mammal species diversity monitoring based on infrared camera technology in China, and more systematic and in-depth monitoring research is needed.
2022, 43(3): 67-70. doi: 10.12172/202111190002
Abstract:
Bailongjiang arid valley is an ecological fragile and sensitive zone in the north of Yangtze River system. In order to scientifically choose suitable afforestation tree species for ecological reconstruction and restoration in this region, more than 2-year-old Zizyphus jujube, Caragana korshinskii, Sophora davidii, Xanthoceras sorbifolium, Vitex negundo and 4-year-old Platycladus orientalis were chosen as experimental materials. After planting for one year, the survival rate of different tree species were measured, and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT) and osmotic regulation substances (soluble sugar, proline and soluble protein) were determined. The results showed that Zizyphus jujube, Sophora davidii, Vitex negundo not only had higher survival rate, but also had higher contents of SOD, POD, CAT, soluble sugar, proline and soluble protein in the leaves, which indicated that Zizyphus jujube, Sophora davidii, Vitex negundo had stronger drought resistance and were more suitable for the afforestation of the Bailongjiang ecological restoration and reconstruction.
2022, 43(3): 71-79. doi: 10.12172/202108160001
Abstract:
The fractal characteristics of soil particles of different plantations and their relationship with soil structure and nutrients in loess hilly and gully region of Qingshuihe county were studied, and the effects of different plantations on soil structure and nutrients in Qingshuihe county were compared with the fractal dimension of soil volume, so as to understand the soil structure and nutrient status of different plantations and provide reference for the selection of local artificial forests and rational management. Nine kinds of plantations in the study area were selected as the research objects, and the woodland free land was used as the control. The particle size distribution of soil was measured by laser particle size analyzer and the fractal dimension was calculated. The nutrient status was evaluated by single index, and the correlation between the fractal dimension of soil and nutrient was analyzed. The fractal dimension of soil volume of plantations in the study area was between 2.1785-2.3192, and the fractal dimension of soil volume was as follows: Pinus tabuliformis Carr.×Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Kuzen. > Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Kuzen. and PinPinus tabuliformis Carr. × Armeniaca sibirica (L.) Lam. (P>0.5) > Hippophae rhamnoides Linn. × Caragana korshinskii Kom., Armeniaca sibirica (L.) Lam. × Caragana korshinskii Kom., Hippophae rhamnoides Linn. (P>0.5) > Pinus tabuliformis Carr., Caragana korshinskii Kom., Armeniaca sibirica (L.) Lam. (P>0.5) > bare land. The fractal dimension of soil volume was positively correlated with clay, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen, available potassium and available phosphorus (P<0.5), and negatively correlated with sand (P<0.5), but not significantly correlated with silt and organic matter. There was no significant difference between nutrient evaluation results and fractal dimension of different plantations. The plantations in the study area had remarkable effects for improving soil structure and nutrients, and Pinus tabuliformis Carr.×Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Kuzen., PinPinus tabuliformis Carr. × Armeniaca sibirica (L.) Lam. mixed forest and Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Kuzen. pure forest had great impacts on soil structure and nutrients, and the improvement effect was the best.
2022, 43(3): 80-84. doi: 10.12172/202107050002
Abstract:
A wild investigation was carried out to study the distribution characteristics and plant composition of Loropetalum subcordatum in Maolan Karst Forest, and the floristic analysis was made．The results showed that: (1) Loropetalum subcordatum community were distributed in limestone secondary shrub and evergreen deciduous broad-leaved forest from the middle of shady slope to the top of mountain, with high altitude and large gradient in distribution area. (2) There were 162 species of vascular plants in the community, belonging to that 73 families and 124 genera. The dominant families were Rosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lauraceae, Theaceae, Moraceae, Rutaceae, Rubiaceae, Araliaceae, Caesalpiniaceae and Myrsinaceae. (3) The families and genera of Loropetalum subcordatum community were complex, with tropical elements accounting for 67.57% of the total genera, mainly pantropic and Tropical Asia elements, while temperate elements accounting for 32.43% of the total genera．
2022, 43(3): 85-93. doi: 10.12172/202108130002
Abstract:
The identical ecological distributions suitable for the planting in Hubei Province of the superior varieties of Cunninghamia lanceolata introduced from the mountainous region surrounding Sichuan basin were predicted by using MaxEnt model and ArcGIS software, and the dominant climatic factors affecting the growth were analyzed and determined. The results showed that the MaxEnt model had a high prediction accuracy for the same ecological region suitable for introduction of the superior varieties of Cunninghamia lanceolata, and the mean AUC of the training samples and tested samples predicted by the model was greater than 0.8. The suitable regions for this species covered an area of 5204295 hectares, mainly distributed in Suixian, Dongbao, Duodao, Shayang, Jingzhou, Shashi, Jiangling, Songzi, Gongan and Shishou in central Hubei as well as Yichang, Enshi, Xiangyang, Shiyan and Shenlongjia in western Hubei. Daily average solar radiation and accumulated temperature ≥10℃ were the dominant climatic factors that affected the distribution of suitable planting areas for the superior varieties of Cunninghamia lanceolata introduced from the mountainous areas around the basin of Sichuan province.
2022, 43(3): 94-99. doi: 10.12172/202202140002
Abstract:
In order to establish a technical system suitable for container seedling raising technology of Cinnamomum camphora in southern Sichuan, this study analyzed the effects of substrate ratio, slow-release fertilizer amount and container size on the container seedling growth of Cinnamomum camphora by the factorial experimental design. The results showed that the interaction of substrate formula, slow-release fertilizer amount and container size had a significant effect on the seedling height, ground diameter and height-diameter ratio of 1-year-old Cinnamomum camphora container seedlings. The most suitable factor combination for Cinnamomum camphora container seedling cultivation in southern Sichuan was as follows: the substrate ratio was coconut bran : peat : soil = 1:2:1, the amount of slow-release fertilizer was 1 kg·m−3, the container size of non-woven container was 12.5 cm ×16.0 cm.
2022, 43(3): 100-103. doi: 10.12172/202201210001
Abstract:
In this study, an efficient microwave-assisted hydrodistillation method was developed to separate the essential oil from Psidium guajava leaves. The main influencing factors of the process were optimized using single factor method. Under the optimized conditions, the yield of essential oil was 31.76 ± 1.45 mL·kg-1, and the dominant components of Psidium guajava leaves essential oil were caryophyllene, calamenene A, nerolidyl acetate and humulene epoxide. Compared with traditional hydrodistillation method, the microwave-assisted hydrodistillation had high yield, short time consumption, and low power consumption. Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation is considered as a potentially effective and sustainable alternative technique for the separation of essential oils from plant matrix.
2022, 43(3): 104-107. doi: 10.12172/202108270002
Abstract:
In order to improve the cutting survival rate of Swietenia mahagoni, the experiments were carried out to study the effects of different rooting promoters, concentrations and cutting mediums on the rooting effect of cuttage seedlings of Swietenia mahagoni. The results showed that after the cuttage seedlings of Swietenia mahagoni were treated with 0.55g/L IBA, the highest rooting rate was 83.64% when the red soil and perlite were mixed at 1:1 as cutting medium.
2022, 43(3): 108-114. doi: 10.12172/202108180001
Abstract:
The understory ground cover is treated as the second layer of forest hydrological process, which plays a very significant role in forest hydrological cycle and flood control and disaster reduction of river basins. On the basis of searching, reading, summarizing and summarizing the previous research results, this study clarified the hydrological process of forest floor, analyzed the action mechanism of biological factors, environmental factors and climate factors in the forest ground cover, and summarized its functions of water storage, soil conservation and water purification. The reserve of understory ground cover was directly proportional to its water holding capacity, and the water holding capacity of understory ground cover increased with the restoration of vegetation. The results of short-term water-holding capacity of ground cover results could not fully reflect the water-holding capacity characteristics of ground cover, and forest cover layer of hydrological process mechanism was still unclear. Therefore, it was necessary to strengthen the research from the following aspects in the future: (1) On the basis of long-term monitoring, modern science and technology such as remote sensing, isotope were used to realize large-scale nondestructive dynamic monitoring. (2) On this basis, multiple factors such as rainfall, rainfall intensity, rainfall duration, wind speed, temperature and humidity were considered to be included into the list of influencing factors to analyze their influence on the interception and delay function of the ground cover. (3) When studying the hydrological benefits of ground cover, water holding capacity, pore structure and enzyme activity of soil layer, as well as the species, quantity and activity of microorganisms should be included in the research system to systematically study the relationship between ground cover and soil physical and chemical properties. (4) Strengthen the analysis of water quality at different levels, and clarify the element absorption characteristics of the ground cover, so as to scientifically evaluate the health status of forest ecosystem
2022, 43(3): 115-122. doi: 10.12172/202109050001
Abstract:
With the deepening development of ecological civilization construction in China, eco-tourism, forest recreation and natural landscape resources development and so on have gradually become important ways for all regions to practice the new development concept of "green mountains are gold and silver mountains" and realize the transformation of ecological value. Landscape aesthetics has been integrated into traditional disciplines such as forestry, ecology and landscape architecture, etc. Quantitative evaluation of landscape aesthetics value has become a key indicator of ecosystem service value accounting and landscape design, and has become a hot field of relevant research. Based on Cite Space software, using bibliometrics and other methods, the research hotspots and development trend in this field at home and abroad were analyzed from the perspectives of annual publication volume, main keywords, landscape types, research methods and so on respectively, from 1048 landscape aesthetics research literatures collected in CNKI database and 1455 landscape aesthetics research literatures collected in Web of Science core collection. The results showed that the research on landscape aesthetics in China started late, and the output of scientific research had increased significantly in recent years, but there was still a certain gap compared with the international research. The types of research objects were forest landscape and urban landscape. Foreign countries mainly focused on natural ecological landscapes such as wetlands and wilderness, while domestic countries tended to small-scale landscapes, with limited research horizons. Domestic research focused on the social value of landscape beauty, landscape planning and allocation, while international research paid more attention to the ecological value and cultural value of landscape aesthetic resources. In domestic landscape aesthetics, there were some problems such as scattered research directions, strong subjectivity of evaluation methods and weak innovation of achievements. In the future, it is suggested to strengthen interdisciplinary integration and international cooperation, improve the research system of landscape aesthetics, update research techniques and methods, and emphasize the research on the transformation of landscape aesthetic values.
2022, 43(3): 123-129. doi: 10.12172/202108110003
Abstract:
With the development and enrichment of mountain tourism research, it is of great significance to comprehensively sort out, rationally reflect and examine the literature in this field. With the help of CiteSpace visualization software, the knowledge map of mountain tourism research was constructed, which objectively presented the evolution, development and trend of the research. It was found that: (1) In the past 30 years, the research on mountain tourism had achieved great enrichment, and it had experienced three research stages as a whole. At present, it maintained a high fluctuation growth period of the number of published documents; (2) The hot topics in the research field included mountain resource analysis and tourism development, mountain tourism impact and sustainable development research; (3) Among the research topics, mountain resource analysis and tourism development research complemented each other. The research on the impact of mountain tourism had an obvious shift from "things" to "people". The research on the sustainable development of mountain tourism gradually deepened with the highland and mankind relationship system as the core.
2022, 43(3): 130-137. doi: 10.12172/202107140003
Abstract:
Mountainous forest health and wellness town is a characteristic town based on mountainous terrains and abundant forest resources, which provides good conditions for carrying out a series of health and wellness activities. Based on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, a resource evaluation index system was constructed from the four dimensions: physiological needs, safety needs, social needs and respect needs, and self-realization needs. The index weights of each level were determined by the AHP method, and the evaluation level is determined by the FAHP method. An empirical study was conducted on forest health and wellness tourism resources of Tai’an ancient town. The results showed that: (1) According to the resource characteristic of mountainous forest health and wellness towns, the evaluation index system was more adaptable than the traditional resource evaluation system, and the index was more complete and the system was more perfect. (2) The forest health and wellness resources in Tai'an ancient town belonged to the third-level health and wellness resources. After the comprehensive evaluation, the advantages and disadvantages are delineated. Finally, some problems that needed to be solved urgently, such as the disorderly development of the town’s health tourism planning, the insufficient influence of the health and wellness tourism brands is, and the weak basic health and wellness service facilities.
2022, 43(3): 138-142. doi: 10.12172/202109100001
Abstract:
In this paper, the dryer method (9-11L) commonly used by manufacturers was selected to detect the formaldehyde emission from wood-based panels impregnated with adhesive film paper, and the results were analyzed and compared with the detection data of 1 m3 climate chamber method. The results indicated a certain correlation. Among them, there was a significant one-dimensional linear relationship between the two methods used to test formaldehyde in impregnated adhesive film paper veneer fiberboard and particleboard. The dryer method could be used to replace the climate chamber method in the internal quality control of manufacturing enterprise.
2022, 43(3): 143-146. doi: 10.12172/202107120001
Abstract:
Arisaema utile Hook. f. ex Schott belongs to Araceae and is distributed in the Himalayan ranges of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Gaoligong Mountains and Xueshan Mountains in western Yunnan province. It is distinguished from other species by the red edge of its three leaflets. This paper recorded the new distribution of Arisaema utile in Wanba and Hongba township of Jiulong county, Sichuan province, which is in the south section of Great Snow Mountains and a tributary of Dadu River. The vegetation types and companion species in its habitats were described, and the reasons for its discontinuous distribution were discussed.