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郭聪, 李艳, 殷国兰, 等. 四川隆昌油茶种质资源主要经济性状与茶油品质分析[J]. 四川林业科技, 2024, 45(3): 114−121. DOI: 10.12172/202403260001
引用本文: 郭聪, 李艳, 殷国兰, 等. 四川隆昌油茶种质资源主要经济性状与茶油品质分析[J]. 四川林业科技, 2024, 45(3): 114−121. DOI: 10.12172/202403260001
GUO C, LI Y, YIN G L, et al. Main economic characteristics and oil quality of Camellia oleifera resources in Longchang City, Sichuan Province[J]. Journal of Sichuan Forestry Science and Technology, 2024, 45(3): 114−121. DOI: 10.12172/202403260001
Citation: GUO C, LI Y, YIN G L, et al. Main economic characteristics and oil quality of Camellia oleifera resources in Longchang City, Sichuan Province[J]. Journal of Sichuan Forestry Science and Technology, 2024, 45(3): 114−121. DOI: 10.12172/202403260001

四川隆昌油茶种质资源主要经济性状与茶油品质分析

Main economic characteristics and oil quality of Camellia oleifera resources in Longchang City, Sichuan Province

  • 摘要: 为了筛选和开发四川本地区域特色油茶种质资源,在前期资源调查的基础上对隆昌23份油茶资源(SYQ1~SYQ23)的果实表型性状、主要经济性状指标及茶油脂肪酸组分和主要营养物质进行了测定,利用相关性分析和主成分分析对23份资源的综合性状进行了评价。结果表明:搜集的23份油茶资源具有丰富的遗传变异。在主要果实表型性状方面,籽粒数的变异系数最大,为26.42%,其次为平均单果重,变异系数22.85%。果纵径变异最小,为7.70%。主要经济性状中,鲜果含油率差异最大,变异系数达47.75%,最大为SYQ18(13.92%),最小为SYQ10(2.64%),鲜出籽率和出仁率的变异最小。对茶油脂肪酸组分的测定只检测到5种脂肪酸,其中油酸含量在23份资源中均占主导地位,平均含量达76.41%,且不同资源间差异最小,变异系数为5.10%,二十烯酸的含量最少,但资源间变异系数最大,为38.30%。对营养物质的测定表明角鲨烯在资源间的差异最大,变异系数达62.05%。综合分析表明,隆昌现存油茶资源蕴含丰富的遗传变异,不乏综合性状优异的资源,可为今后本地区域特色优良良种培育提供极具潜质的育种资源。

     

    Abstract: In order to select and develop the local Camellia oleifera germplasm resources in Sichuan Province, the fruit phenotypic traits, main economic traits, fatty acid component and main nutrients in oil were measured among 23 C. oleifera resources (SYQ1-SYQ23) from Longchang City. Correlation analysis and principal component analysis were used to evaluate the comprehensive characteristics of these resources. The results showed that 23 collected samples had abundant genetic variation. For fruit phenotypic traits, the coefficient of variation of kernel number was the largest (26.42%), followed by the average fruit weight (22.85%), and the longitudinal diameter of fruit was the smallest (7.70%). Among the main economic traits, the oil content of fresh fruit of 23 resources had the largest difference, the coefficient of variation was 47.75%, the maximum was SYQ18 (13.92%), and the minimum was SYQ10 (2.64%). The variation of seed rate of fresh fruit was the smallest. In the detection of fatty acid component, only 5 fatty acids were detected, among which oleic acid content was dominant in 23 samples, with an average content of 76.41%, and the variation coefficient among different resources was the smallest, with 5.10%, and the content of eicosenoic acid was the least, but the variation coefficient was the largest 38.30%. The determination of nutrients showed that squalene had the largest difference among resources, with a coefficient of variation of 62.05%. The results of this study showed that the existing resources in Longchang City are rich in genetic variation, and there are many resources with excellent comprehensive characteristics, which can provide potential breeding resources for the cultivation of local excellent varieties with local characteristics in the future.

     

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