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YUAN Y M, ZHANG Z Y, ZHANG H Y. Study on the attraction characteristics of Bactrocera tau by the appearance and color of different fruit traps[J/OL]. Journal of Sichuan Forestry Science and Technology, 2022, 43(2)[2022-03-09] doi: 10.12172/202106170001
Citation: YUAN Y M, ZHANG Z Y, ZHANG H Y. Study on the attraction characteristics of Bactrocera tau by the appearance and color of different fruit traps[J/OL]. Journal of Sichuan Forestry Science and Technology, 2022, 43(2)[2022-03-09] doi: 10.12172/202106170001

Study on the Attraction Characteristics of Bactrocera tau by the Appearance and Color of Different Fruit Traps


doi: 10.12172/202106170001
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  • Received Date: 2021-06-17
    Available Online: 2022-03-09
  • Using fruit model traps of different colors and shapes and male sex attractants to attract Bactrocera tau in the field, the attraction effects on Bactrocera tau were compared. At the same time, the attraction effects of fruit model traps and commercially traps on Bactrocera tau were compared, and the significant level of their trapping effects was analyzed, in order to select traps with better attracting effects. The results showed that: (1) Compared with adding liquid attractant or a piece of solid attractant without any sex attractant, the trapping effects of the three fruit model traps were in the order of HG+1Y>SG+1Y>QC+1Y; (2) When two pieces of solid attractant were added, the trapping effects of the three fruit model traps were HG+2Y>QC+2Y>SG+2Y; (3) Effect of using fruit model traps and commercial traps: HG+Y and HZ+Y had the best trapping effects on Bactrocera tau. The trapping effects of the six traps were in the order of HZ+Y>HG+Y>QC+Y>SG+Y>SJ+Y>YG+Y.
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  • [1] 冉峰, 陈智明. 南亚果实蝇的发生为害与综合防治策略. 科学神养. 2012(7): 31−31
    [2] 张艳, 陈俊谕. 南亚果实蝇国内研究进展. 热带农业科学. 2018, 38(11): 70−77
    [3] 张小亚, 陈国庆, 孟幼青, 黄振东. 不同寄主植物对南亚果实蝇行为趋性及发育的影响. 浙江农业科学. 2012(4): 537−539
    [4] 李小珍, 刘映红, 贺智勇. 南亚果实蝇对六种果实的趋性和产卵选择性. 昆虫知识. 2007, 44(1): 82−85
    [5] 周昌清,梅流柱. 瓜实蝇和南瓜实蝇的种内竞争[J]. 中山大学学报:自然科学版.,1998,38(2):60−64.
    [6] 林明光,汪兴鉴,张艳,孙蕊芬,曾玲. 橘小实蝇、瓜实蝇和南亚果实蝇人工饲料的优化[J]. 应用昆虫学报.,2013,50(4):1115−1125.
    [7] 张振宇,李亮,邓义,焦丽,凌霄霞,张宏宇. 湖北武汉果实蝇害虫种群动态调查[J]. 华中农业大学学报.,2018,37(5):52−58.
    [8] 李小珍,刘映红,王泽乐. 检疫性害虫南亚果实蝇生物学及控制技术[J]. 植物保护.,2006,32(6):141−145.
    [9] 周京花, 商晗武, 李红亮, 南亚果实蝇对颜色趋性及不同寄主对其生长发育的影响, 浙江农业科学, 2009(3): 555−558
    [10] 姚明燕, 季清娥, 陈家骅, 实蝇肠杆菌科共生菌的研究进展, 生物安全学报2017, 2 6 (2 ) : 103−110
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Study on the Attraction Characteristics of Bactrocera tau by the Appearance and Color of Different Fruit Traps

doi: 10.12172/202106170001
  • 1. College of Environmental Design, Wuhan Institute of Design and Sciences, Wuhan 430205, China
  • 2. State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Institute of Urban and Horticultural Pests, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China

Abstract: Using fruit model traps of different colors and shapes and male sex attractants to attract Bactrocera tau in the field, the attraction effects on Bactrocera tau were compared. At the same time, the attraction effects of fruit model traps and commercially traps on Bactrocera tau were compared, and the significant level of their trapping effects was analyzed, in order to select traps with better attracting effects. The results showed that: (1) Compared with adding liquid attractant or a piece of solid attractant without any sex attractant, the trapping effects of the three fruit model traps were in the order of HG+1Y>SG+1Y>QC+1Y; (2) When two pieces of solid attractant were added, the trapping effects of the three fruit model traps were HG+2Y>QC+2Y>SG+2Y; (3) Effect of using fruit model traps and commercial traps: HG+Y and HZ+Y had the best trapping effects on Bactrocera tau. The trapping effects of the six traps were in the order of HZ+Y>HG+Y>QC+Y>SG+Y>SJ+Y>YG+Y.

  • 南亚果实蝇Bactrocera tau(Walker),又叫南瓜实蝇,隶属于昆虫中的双翅目,实蝇科,果实蝇属,现今为止仍然是国际组织上一种比较重要的检疫对象[1]。可供南亚果实蝇食用的果实种类繁多,寄主作物之多居然占到80多种。由于南亚果实蝇成虫的飞行能力很强,一直以来防治效果不佳,而近年多地有大发生的趋势。前人研究表明诱蝇酮仅对南亚果实蝇雄虫引诱效果较好[2];采用红、橙、黄、绿、蓝、靛、紫7种颜色对南亚果实蝇初羽化成虫进行颜色趋性研究,发现其对绿色趋性最强,对红色有拒避性;南亚果实蝇成虫对不同寄主果实表现出不同强度的趋性[3-4]。因此,本实验通过设置不同颜色和形状的寄主植物诱捕器,同时设置有无添加性诱剂的对比试验来探究南亚果实蝇对不同寄主果实的模型诱捕器的趋性的不同,分析其引诱效果差异性,来比较寄主植物果实外观颜色和形状对南亚果实蝇的引诱效果。希望可以为控制南亚果实蝇的为害提供新的靶标、材料与手段,为害虫的绿色防控提供新思路及有力依据。

    • 南亚果实蝇,在华中农业大学园艺与昆虫研究所温室饲养;温室温度控制在28℃左右,湿度为70%左右,光照周期L∶D=14∶10。养虫笼长宽高为45 cm×45 cm×45cm的,木质框架,40目的尼龙纱密封而成。

      诱蝇酮(Cuelure),微晶纤维素,羧甲基纤维素钠,硬脂酸镁,海藻酸钠等。

      铁丝,粘胶,脱脂棉,天平、压片机、压片模具、研钵、移液枪、果实模型、市售诱捕器,培养皿等。

    • 将果实模型和诱剂篓一并串在铁丝上(见图1),根据试验需要,可在诱剂篓添加适量性诱剂,模拟果实自然的悬挂于橘树上引诱南亚果实蝇。

      Figure 1.  Schematic diagram of fruit model trap

      用移液枪吸取0.5 ml诱蝇酮(Cuelure),加入1 g白炭黑中,并加入0.15 g羧甲基纤维素钠和0.15 g硬脂酸镁,于研钵中充分混合,最后将混合物倒入压片模具中用压片机进行挤压成片剂,成型后放入冰箱待用。

      果实模型新型诱捕器与市售诱捕器对比进行试验,筛选出效果更佳的诱捕器,提高防治措施。选用市场上效果较好的三种诱捕器,如下图:

      实蝇黄粘板:直接撕开平稳放在树干上,不用任何试剂(见图2)。

      Figure 2.  Yellow sticky plate of fruit fly

      Combined诱罐:将其作为干型诱捕器使用。将吸满供试诱剂的棉球放置于网隔盛药腔内,盖上盖,使上盖和底座的进入口对齐,留出入口(见图3)。

      三角板诱捕器:在三角板内侧底部平展放置一张白粘板,中间凹槽放置诱剂篓,相应的添加性诱剂进行引诱(见图4)。

      Figure 3.  Combined attraction tank

      Figure 4.  Triangle trap

    • 室外野外田间试验于2020年10月—2020年12月在华中农业大学实验基地的网室的橘树上进行,树高约2.5 m,行株距约3×4 m,网室面积约为200 m2。试验步骤具体如下:

      选树叶密集,阳光直照不到的距离地面1.5 m高度左右的地方分别悬挂放置诱捕器,不同处理如表1,每组设置三组重复,每间隔3 m左右的距离放置一个诱捕器,每次试验新放南亚果实蝇雌雄各100只,每间隔2天调查记录实蝇雌雄幼虫数目,计算雄性南亚果实蝇诱杀比率。

      试验组编号
      Test group number
      试验组
      Test group
      HG黄瓜+无性诱剂
      Cucumber+sexual attractant
      SG笋瓜+无性诱剂
      Squash+sexual attractant
      QC脐橙+无性诱剂
      Orange+sexual attractant
      HG+Y黄瓜+性诱剂
      Cucumber+sexual attractant
      SG+Y笋瓜+性诱剂
      Squash+sexual attractant
      QC+Y脐橙+性诱剂
      Orange+sexual attractant
      HZ+Y实蝇黄粘板+性诱剂
      Fruit fly yellow sticky plate+sexual attractant
      YG + YCombined诱罐+性诱剂
      Combined tank+sexual attractant
      SJ+Y三角板诱捕器+性诱剂
      Triangle trap+sex attractant
      HG+1Y黄瓜+1片固体性诱剂
      Cucumber +1 tablet of solid attractant
      SG+1Y笋瓜+1片固体性诱剂
      Squash +1 tablet of solid attractant
      QC+1Y脐橙+1片固体性诱剂
      Orange +1 tablet of solid attractant
      HG+2Y黄瓜+2片固体性诱剂
      Cucumber +2 tablets of solid attractant
      SG+2Y笋瓜+2片固体性诱剂
      Squash +2 tablets of solid attractant
      QC+2Y脐橙+2片固体性诱剂
      Orange+2 tablets of solid attractant

      Table 1.  Different treatment traps

      数据分析采用SPSS19.0软件对实验数据进行处理,比较其对寄主选择的差异显著水平。

      雄性南亚果实蝇诱杀比率=每种果实模型诱捕器诱杀的雄性南亚果实蝇的总数/所有果实模型诱捕器诱杀南亚果实蝇的总数×100%

    2.   结果与分析
    • 选用脐橙、笋瓜、黄瓜这三种果实模型进行处理,不添加任何引诱剂悬挂于1.5 m左右高度的树枝上,设置三组重复,得出引诱南亚果实蝇的雌雄数目及诱杀率,如表2

      诱捕器
      Trap
      果实模型诱捕器诱杀数量
      Trap number of model fruit traps
      ♂诱杀率/%
      Trapping rate/%
      ♂/只♀/只总数/只
      SG1.67±0.47a0.33±0.47b2.00±0.82a21.70
      QC1.00±0.82b0.33±0.47b1.33±1.25b13.00
      HG3.33±2.13a1.00±0.82a4.33±1.89a43.50
      注:表中诱杀雄性数量表示为“平均值±标准误”,字母为Duncan’s,各行小写字母间有相同的表示差异不显著,不同字母表示在P=0.05的水平上显著差异。
      Note: In the table, the number of trapped males is expressed as Mean±standard error with Duncan's letter. The same lowercase letter in each line indicates no significant difference, while different letters indicate significant difference at P=0.05 level.

      Table 2.  Trapping effect of fruit model

      结果显示,HG诱捕器对雄性南亚果实蝇的引诱效果最佳,达到43.50%,三种果实模型的引诱效果依次为:HG>SG>QC,表明了黄瓜果实模型对南亚果实蝇的引诱效果更为显著。

    • 我们在上述实验的三种果实模型的诱剂篓中分别添加雄性性诱剂诱蝇酮0.5 ml、1片自制性诱剂和2片自制性诱剂进行对照试验,重复三组试验,得出诱杀南亚果实蝇的雌雄数目并加以统计,如表3表4表5

      诱捕器
      Trap
      果实模型诱捕器诱杀数量
      Trap number of model fruit traps
      ♂诱杀率/%
      Trapping rate/%
      ♂/只♀/只总数/只
      SG+Y7.33±4.78a4.67±2.49a12.00±6.67a22.20
      QC+Y5.00±4.32b1.33±1.55b6.00±5.00b15.20
      HG+Y10.67±6.55a4.00±1.63a15.00±7.42a32.30
      注:表中诱杀雄性数量表示为“平均值±标准误”,字母为Duncan’s,各行小写字母间有相同的表示差异不显著,不同字母表示在P=0.05的水平上显著差异。
      Note: In the table, the number of trapped males is expressed as Mean±standard error with Duncan's letter. The same lowercase letter in each line indicates no significant difference, while different letters indicate significant difference at P=0.05 level.

      Table 3.  Trapping effect of fruit model+cuelure on Bactrocera tau

      诱捕器
      Trap
      果实模型诱捕器诱杀数量
      Trap number of model fruit traps
      ♂诱杀率/%
      Trapping rate/%
      ♂/只♀/只总数/只
      SG+1Y5.67±1.70a2.33±1.89a8.00±2.16a21.30
      QC+1Y4.67±2.05b4.67±5.25b9.33±6.85b17.50
      HG+1Y6.00±2.16a3.33±1.89a9.33±4.03a22.50
      注:表中诱杀雄性数量表示为“平均值±标准误”,字母为Duncan’s,各行小写字母间有相同的表示差异不显著,不同字母表示在P=0.05的水平上显著差异。
      Note: In the table, the number of trapped males is expressed as Mean±standard error with Duncan's letter. The same lowercase letter in each line indicates no significant difference, while different letters indicate significant difference at P=0.05 level.

      Table 4.  Trapping results of fruit model +1 piece of solid attractant to Bactrocera tau

      诱捕器
      Trap
      果实模型诱捕器诱杀数量
      Trap number of model fruit traps
      ♂诱杀率/%
      Trapping rate/%
      ♂/只♀/只总数/只
      SG+2Y11.00±1.63b3.00±1.41b14.00±2.16b21.90
      QC+2Y14.67±4.78a2.67±1.36a17.33±6.60a29.10
      HG+2Y16.67±4.19a2.33±2.05a19.00±6.16a33.10
      注:表中诱杀雄性数量表示为“平均值±标准误”,字母为 Duncan’s,各行小写字母间有相同的表示差异不显著,不同字母表示在P=0.05的水平上显著差异。
      Note: In the table, the number of trapped males is expressed as Mean±standard error with Duncan's letter. The same lowercase letter in each line indicates no significant difference, while different letters indicate significant difference at P=0.05 level.

      Table 5.  Trapping results of fruit model +2 pieces of solid attractant to Bactrocera tau

      表2的计算结果可以看出,在添加0.5ml诱蝇酮性诱剂的条件下,黄瓜果实模型的诱捕效果最佳,雄性南亚果实蝇占总诱捕数的32.30%,三种果实模型诱捕器的引诱效果依次为:HG+Y>SG+Y>QC+Y。

      表3的诱杀率分析结果可以看出,添加1片自制雄性性诱剂的情况下,HG+1Y引诱雄性南亚果实蝇占引诱总数的百分比达到22.50%,效果最佳,三种果实模型诱捕器的诱捕效果依次为:HG+1Y>SG+1Y>QC+1Y。

      表4显示,添加2片自制雄性性诱剂的情况下,HG+2Y诱捕器的引诱效果最佳,雄性所占百分比达到33.10%,三种果实模型诱捕器的诱捕效果依次为:HG+2Y>QC+2Y>SG+2Y。

    • 为了进一步比较并筛选出最佳的实蝇诱捕器,完善防治措施,提高经济效益。使用较为常用的三种市售诱捕器和以上三种果实模型诱捕器进行试验,分别在果实模型诱捕器和市售诱捕器中同时加入0.5ml诱蝇酮性诱剂,按要求悬挂于网室中的橘树上进行观察记录分析得出结果,图5图6表6

      Figure 5.  Trapping results of six traps on female fruit flies of Bactrocera tau

      Figure 6.  Trapping results of six traps on the male fruit flies of Bactrocera tau

      诱捕器
      Trap
      果实模型诱捕器诱杀数量
      Trap number of model fruit traps
      ♂诱杀率/%
      Trapping rate/%
      ♂/只♀/只总数/只
      SG+Y16.33±3.40b4.00±2.45b20.33±5.79b14.20
      QC+Y20.00±9.63a3.33±2.87a23.33±8.18a17.40
      HG+Y21.00±9.57a2.67±1.70a23.67±10.96a18.30
      SJ+Y12.33±8.75b0.67±0.47b13.00±6.98b10.80
      HZ+Y23.33±7.04a5.00±2.83a28.33±7.41a20.30
      YG+Y5.67±5.19b0.33±0.47b6.00±4.97b4.90
      注:表中诱杀雄性数量表示为“平均值±标准误”,字母为Duncan’s,各行小写字母间有相同的表示差异不显著,不同字母表示在P=0.05的水平上显著差异。
      Note: In the table, the number of trapped males is expressed as Mean±standard error with Duncan's letter. The same lowercase letter in each line indicates no significant difference, while different letters indicate significant difference at P=0.05 level.

      Table 6.  Analysis on trapping and killing effects of fruit model traps

      表6的数据分析结果表明,添加0.5 ml等量的诱蝇酮性诱剂的果实模型诱捕器和市售诱捕器中,HZ+Y对雄性南亚果实蝇的诱捕效果最佳,达到20.30%,HG+Y次之,其百分比为18.30%,YG+Y诱捕效果最差,果实模型和市售模型诱捕器的诱捕效果依次为:HZ+Y>HG+Y>QC+Y>SG+Y>SJ+Y>YG+Y。

    3.   讨论与小结
    • 野外田间试验结果证明,在果实模型中添加性诱剂或者不添加任何性诱剂的情况下,黄瓜果实模型的诱捕效果最佳。而在果实模型和市售模型诱捕器效果分析的试验中显示,黄粘板的引诱效果最好,而诱罐的引诱效果最差。果实模型和市售模型诱捕器的引诱,效果依次为:HZ+Y>HG+Y>QC+Y>SG+Y>SJ+Y>YG+Y。同时,从上述试验的结果中,表2表4中的寄主植物脐橙的果实诱捕效果较差,导致这种结果的因素除了果实颜色和形状的外观影响外[5],可能还有很多外在因素的影响[6]。而表6的结果显示HZ+Y诱捕效果最佳,其原因有很多,黄粘板表面大,体积吸水率低等。综上所述,在实蝇发生高峰期使用黄粘板诱捕器,以达到最佳诱杀效果[7];而在虫口密度较低时,则推荐使用加入诱蝇酮的海绵诱芯,效果相当,且节约人力和用药,以完善实蝇的综合治理措施,提高经济效益[8]

      不同寄主植物果实诱捕器和不同处理性诱剂对实蝇的诱捕能力存在显著差异,导致这种结果的外在因素有很多。其活动能力受气候条件影响较大,在10月底11月初的几日观察中,由于武汉市骤然降温,平均气温低于20℃,南亚果实蝇的存活率降低,导致不同处理诱捕器内引诱数目不多。而且在网室中进行试验时,如果新放的南亚果实蝇的活泼度不够,那么南亚果实不足以充分均匀的飞向各个模型;或者就是没有平稳的放置模型,导致模型掉落,没有起到很好的诱捕效果。结果显示,添加1片性诱剂的果实模型诱捕器的引诱效果比添加2片性诱剂时的诱捕效果好,产生这种现象的因素可能是性诱剂的高浓度对南亚果实蝇的引诱有一定的抑制,具体影响因素还需进一步研究论证。

      由于南亚果实蝇对寄主植物外观形态有不同是趋性,对其果实气味挥发物也有一定的选择特性[9]。并且果实提取物对南亚果实蝇的诱杀作用的研究报道也有很多[10],设置本实验可为进一步探究南亚果实蝇的防治措施提供有效理论的依据。

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