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2021 Vol. 42 Issue 2

### 2021 Vol. 42, No. 2

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2021, 42(2): 1-7. doi: 10.12172/202009210003
Abstract:
The subalpine natural secondary forest in western Sichuan is the main forest type of water conservation forest in alpine forest regions of southwestern China, which plays an important role in the carbon budget of forest ecosystems in this region. In this paper, the soil structure and organic carbon distribution characteristics of secondary forests in different successional stages were studied by dry-sieving method and potassium dichromate oxidation-external heating method. It was found that the soil aggregates of secondary forests in each successional stage in this region was relatively strong. The content of large aggregates was the highest in Abies faxoniana and Betula spp. mixed forest, and the formation of large aggregates was negatively correlated with the content of organic matter. The content of organic carbon mainly existed in large aggregates, and the contribution rate of organic carbon in soil aggregates with particle size >5 mm was the highest, with the order of Abies faxoniana and Betula spp. mixed forest > Abies faxoniana forest > Betula spp. forest. The organic carbon content and soil nitrogen were positively correlated. Although the content of large aggregates in Abies faxoniana forest was lower than that in Abies faxoniana and Betula spp. mixed forest, the content of total organic carbon was the highest. The content of microaggregates increased with the increase of successional stage, and the content of organic carbon basically increased with the decrease of aggregate size. When comparing the organic carbon content and contribution rate of different aggregates, it was found that the organic carbon content of <0.25 mm particle size was high but the contribution rate was low, which indicated that the microaggregates had stronger protection for organic carbon and the ranking order was Abies faxoniana and Betula spp. mixed forest > Betula spp. forests > Abies faxoniana forests.
2021, 42(2): 8-14. doi: 10.12172/202010070002
Abstract:
Giant pandas have formed a series of strategies to adapt to bamboo food in the evolution process, such as eating bamboos at different altitudes in different seasons, and bamboos at different altitudes have specific morphological and environmental characteristics. In this study, Liziping National Nature Reserve in Sichuan province was taken as the study area, and the morphological characteristics and site environment differences of different staple food bamboos of giant panda populations in Xiaoxiangling Mountains were revealed through field investigation. The results showed that the basal diameter and height of A. spanostachya, Y. lineolata and F. ferax were significantly different. The F. ferax at low altitude had the largest basal diameter and height, while the A. spanostachya at higher altitude had the smallest basal diameter and height. Different bamboo species have different site environments, mainly in altitude and tree canopy density. Different bamboo species require different tree canopy which is most suitable for growth. The results of this study can provide reference for the habitat restoration and management of the giant pandas in this area, especially the refined management of the giant panda’s staple food bamboo.
2021, 42(2): 15-20. doi: 10.12172/202102080001
Abstract:
In order to explore the initial law of plant species diversity restoration after one year’s transformation of typical vegetation, Salix paraplesia shrubbery and Picea asperata forest, in Huangtuliang corridor of giant panda, the community survey of S. paraplesia shrubbery and P. asperata forest before and after transformation was carried out by sampling method, and the differences of species composition and diversity between them were compared and analyzed. The results are as follows: (1) After one year’s transformation, fast-growing and shade-tolerant herbs increased obviously, and planted broad-leaved tree seedlings and F. denudata grew slowly, maintaining lower coverage and abundance; (2) The total richness of shrubs and herbs in the community increased by 77.27%, 13.89%, and 22.23%, respectively in the clear-cutting shrub zone, the thinning spruce forest and the spruce forest gap plot; (3) After one year’s transformation, the species richness index, Shannon-Winer index, and Simpson index of shrubs and herbs in the S. paraplesia shrubbery and P. asperata forest were on the rise. It will take a longer time for S. paraplesia shrubbery and P. asperata forest to restore, so as to fully improve the species diversity and restore the ecological functions of giant panda staple bamboo and the habitat.
2021, 42(2): 21-26. doi: 10.12172/202009140001
Abstract:
In this study, a field investigation was conducted in the distribution area of Davidia involucrata community at an altitude of 1500-1800 m in Mount Emei. Five sample plots with a total area of 2 000 m2 were set up, focusing on community structure, age structure and vertical distribution of Davidia involucrate in this area. The results showed that: (1) There are 147 species of higher plant species in Davidia involucrate community, belonging to 68 families and 102 genera. The life form of the community is dominated by phanerophyte (40.5%), leave size by mesophyll (53%), leave type by single leaf (79.5%), and leaf texture by papery (77%). The analysis of important value of tree layer showed that Davidia involucrata had the highest dominance in the community. (2) In Davidia involucrata population, the number of middle-aged individuals was more, while the number of young and old individuals was less, showing spindle-shaped structure. The results indicated that the population was declining. (3) According to the vertical distribution, Xianfeng Temple with the highest elevation had the largest number of adult individuals and seedlings.
2021, 42(2): 27-32. doi: 10.12172/202009180003
Abstract:
Activity rhythm is a dynamic life strategy of animal endogenous rhythm in response to environmental stress, which reflects the individual's adaptation to resources and threats. Tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus) is the dominant ungulate species widely distributed in southwest mountain forests of China, but no special reports have been published on it so far. From January 2017 to November 2019, infrared cameras were used to investigate the Tufted deers in Baihe National Nature Reserve in Sichuan province, in order to reveal their activity rhythm and seasonal changes. The results showed that: 1) Tufted deer had obvious typical dawn and dusk activity, with the highest activity intensity from 6:00 to 10:00 and from 16:00 to 20:00 respectively. 2) The seasonal changes of activity rhythm was apparent, with the highest overlapping index in spring and summer (\begin{document}$\widehat{\Delta }=0.90$\end{document}) and the lowest overlapping index in autumn and winter (\begin{document}$\widehat{\Delta }=0.78$\end{document}). Compared with summer and autumn, the activity peak in the morning was delayed and the activity peak in the evening was advanced in spring and winter. 3) Tufted deer had no obvious nocturnal activity, but the nocturnal activity in winter and spring was obviously higher than that in summer and autumn. We believed that extreme temperature and food supply were the main drivers of seasonal variations of their daily activity rhythms.
2021, 42(2): 33-39. doi: 10.12172/202009160001
Abstract:
The introduction of remote infrared video monitoring technology provides a deeper understanding of the basic information of takin population in Wolong National Nature Reserve. From July 2017 to June 2019, the takin population in Wolong National Nature Reserve was continuously monitored. In the form of online video and playback, 45188 takins were recorded in 9968 valid observations by sampling at regular intervals of 15 minutes. The ratio of male to female was 1.64∶1, and the ratio of female adult to subadult and young was 1∶0.39∶0.48, indicating that the takin population was in a stable growth state. The ratio of male and female takins appearing together in different seasons shows that there was a lot of time for male and female adults to appear together in the breeding season, while in the non-breeding season, they were relatively separated. The results indicated that in Wolong National Nature Reserve, the takin population was dominated by female adult individuals, and the basic unit was the family group composed of female adult individuals and related sub-adults and juvenile individuals. In the breeding season, due to the need of breeding and mating, many families gather together and form a group of 30−50 individuals with male individuals.
2021, 42(2): 40-46. doi: 10.12172/202008300001
Abstract:
In order to study the gender differences of male and female individuals' adaptability to natural slope position, the secondary Broussonetia papyrifera population in the degraded slope lawn of purple hilly area was used as study materials. The slope was divided into four slope positions as uphill, middle, downhill and flat, and population characteristics such as population area, population density, age structure, male-female ratio, distribution coefficient, and other characteristic parameters, as well as the height and ground diameter of male and female individuals were determined. The results showed that: (1) There were significant differences in slope size and soil physical and chemical properties among the 4 slope positions (P<0.05). B. papyrifera could invade each position and form secondary population, but the population area and density increased exponentially with the decrease of slope position (P<0.05). (2) The slope position significantly influenced the age structure of the population. With the decrease of the slope position, the proportion of one-year seedlings increased, while the proportion of young trees and adult trees decreased (P<0.05). The age structure of B. papyrifera population on uphill and middle slope was declining type, the downhill was stable and the flat was increasing type. (3) The slope position significantly affected the sex ratio of young trees and adult trees, with male plants on the uphill and middle slopes, and female plants on the downhill and flat slopes. (4) The slope position significantly affected the age spatial distribution pattern of B. papyrifera. The lower the slope position, the more annual seedlings and seedling trees were clustered. With the increase of tree age, the distribution coefficient decreased, and the females tended to be evenly distributed, while the males tended to be randomly distributed. (5) The slope position had more influence on the height of different trees than the ground diameter. The plant height increased with the decrease of slope position, while the ground diameter increased with the increase of soil thickness. To sum up, B. papyrifera invaded the degraded lawn and formed a mixed community of B. papyrifera and herbs. The males' tolerance to the lack of resources was better than females, and the females' competitiveness to resources was stronger than males. The secondary population characteristics and individual growth strategy matched with the slope position and soil physical and chemical properties, so B. papyrifera was suitable for popularization and application in vegetation restoration of bare slope.
2021, 42(2): 47-51. doi: 10.12172/202012180001
Abstract:
Since 1960s, many types of nature reserves have been successively established in Sichuan Province, including nature reserves, forest parks, wetland parks, geological parks and scenic resorts and historic sites. Due to the lack of unified planning and coordination in the construction of protected areas, the overlapping among various protected areas is prominent, and the contradiction between protection and development is increasingly prominent. In order to effectively solve the spatial overlapping and overlapping of Sichuan nature reserves and the contradiction left over from history, the spatial distribution pattern of five major nature reserves in Sichuan Province was analyzed by using geographic information technology. The results showed that the spatial distribution of nature reserves was relatively concentrated and contiguous in the high mountains and plateaus of western Sichuan and scattered in Chengdu plain and hilly areas in the middle of the basin, and the area was small, which was characterized by more in the west and less in the east. The distribution of nature reserves in Sichuan was obviously related to the degree of regional economic development and population distribution.
2021, 42(2): 52-56. doi: 10.12172/202012290001
Abstract:
Vegetation restoration is very difficult in the dry valley of the Minjiang River. Research on the biomass and model of Rosa omeiensis can provide scientific theoretical basis for vegetation protection and restoration in the dry valley of the Minjiang River. The results showed that: (1) Regardless of the slopes, the biomass distribution of different organs of Rosa omeiensis with different diameters was in the order: dry biomass > branch biomass > bark biomass > leaf biomass. The main stem with the largest proportion contributed greatly to the total aboveground biomass. (2) The ratio of aboveground biomass to fresh weight of Rosa omeiensis plants in the middle slope position was the lowest, which indicated that the growth of Rosa omeiensis plants was affected by the low soil moisture content in the middle slope position in this area, and the degree of lignification was low. Under the same fresh weight, the aboveground biomass was significantly lower than other slope positions. (3) The crown width (C), basal diameter (D) and tree height (H) were all independent variables closely related to shrub biomass. The screening results of Rosa omeiensis biomass estimation model showed that both power function model and triple polynomial model had satisfactory correlation coefficient values. The optimal model was mostly the cubic polynomial, because the R2 value of cubic polynomial model was higher. Considering the different shrub morphology, the independent variable factors should be selected according to the actual conditions.
2021, 42(2): 57-61. doi: 10.12172/202008060001
Abstract:
Groundwater is an important part of wetland, which plays an important role in the changes of wetland ecosystem and affects the stability of the whole wetland ecosystem. In order to investigate the change of groundwater depth around Huahu lake in Zoige alpine wetland, we analyzed the data of groundwater depth obtained from 6 locations around Huahu lake in Zoige alpine wetland from 2015 to 2017. The results were as follows: (1) Huahu-3 was the shallowest among the 6 monitoring locations, with an average depth of 14.9 cm (inter-annual variation was 2−34 cm); Huahu-5 was the deepest with groundwater depth, with an average phreatic depth of 128.3 cm (inter-annual variation was 67−197 cm). The maximum difference in annual average groundwater depth was 113.4 cm. (2) On the whole year, the highest groundwater level occurred in February and December, while the lowest in June and September. When comparing average value of annual extreme difference of groundwater depth of each monitoring location in 2015 and 2016, it was found that the annual extreme difference of groundwater depth of Huahu-3 monitoring location was the smallest, only 23.1 cm, while that of Huahu-4 was the largest, reaching 100.5 cm. This suggested that the variation varied greatly not only in groundwater depth among the 6 monitoring locations, but also in the seasonal changes of groundwater depth. Seasonal variation of groundwater depth was smaller in areas with shallower annual groundwater depth, but greater in areas with deeper groundwater depth. In this study, the variations of groundwater depth around Huahu lake in Zoige alpine wetland was analyzed in order to provide relevant data support for the protection and management of Zoige wetland.
2021, 42(2): 62-65. doi: 10.12172/202010220002
Abstract:
Fargesia extensa, an alpine woody bamboo endemic to Tibet, China, is of great value as an ornamental landscape species. Its seed (caryopsis) morphology and germination characteristics were observed and analyzed in this paper. The results indicated that F. extensa seeds were typical caryopsis, brown and spindle with a ventral groove.The length, width, ratio of length to width and 1 000-grain weight of seeds were 6.91±0.84 mm, 1.38±0.11 mm, 5.01±0.64 and 7.81±0.24 g respectively. The seed vitality could last ca. 14 months at 4 ℃ and seeds finished germination within ca. 15 days without dormancy. The germination rate of fresh seeds in Lhasa nursery was 81.3%, and dropped sharply to ca. 40.0% in Kunming nursery after one-year storage at 4 ℃. Soaking seeds with 200 ppm GA3 had no significant effect on germination rate, germination potential and germination duration, but it could accelerate germination 2—3 days earlier.
2021, 42(2): 66-70. doi: 10.12172/202009210001
Abstract:
Landscape recreation is an important function of forest, and it is also the foundation of modern forestry industry development such as ecotourism and forest health care. In order to better carry out the development of landscape recreation forests and clarify the relationships among the influencing factors of the quality of landscape recreation forest, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was used to establish a quality evaluation system. The results showed that: (1) Based on the ecological, aesthetic, and social values of landscape recreation forest, an evaluation system with three criteria layers of ecological benefit, aesthetic benefit, and social benefit and 13 evaluation factor index layers was established; (2) According to the index weight of each layer in the evaluation system, aesthetic benefit was 0.5278 > ecological benefit was 0.3325> social benefit was 0.1397. From the perspective of ecological benefit, aesthetic benefit and social benefit, the evaluation index with the highest weight value are air anion, color richness and comfort.
2021, 42(2): 71-76. doi: 10.12172/202009220001
Abstract:
From July to August 2015, an investigation of Staphylinidae species and the host macrofungi was conducted in Wolong nature reserve. A total of 359 Staphylinidae specimen were collected, which were identified as belonging to 6 subfamilies, 17 genera and 25 species. There were 2 dominant subfamilies: Aleocharinae, 6 genera and 9 morphological species, accounting for 56.2% of the total specimen; Tachyporini, 4 genera and 6 morphological species, accounting for 29.8% of the total specimen. A total of 105 samples of macrofungi belonging to 10 families, 14 genera, 26 species were collected, including 16 edible macrofungi, 7 poisonous fungi and 8 medicinal anticancer fungi. Tricholomataceae and Russulaceae were dominant families, accounting for 23.1% and 19.2% of the total species respectively. The analysis of α diversity of Staphylinidae species in four main host macrofungi showed that the species and quantity of Staphylinidae parasitized by Tricholomataceae were the highest, with the highest species diversity (H') and evenness (J), followed by Russulaceae and Mycenaceae. The predominance index (λ) of parasitic Paederus in Boletaceaei was the highest, while the species diversity and evenness are the lowest. In this study, the species of fungi-feeding Staphylinidae and the host macrofungi were investigated, which provided basic information for the further research of their interactions.
2021, 42(2): 77-81. doi: 10.12172/202008120001
Abstract:
With the rapid development of economy, urbanization has a great impact on the change of land use structure, and the study on the spatial-temporal structure change of land use is of great significance to land planning and sustainable development. In this paper, the land use data of Chengdu from 2000 to 2020 were processed, and the annual land use rate (R), comprehensive index of land use degree and land use change amount (S) were calculated. The conclusions are as follows: (1) cultivated land and construction land change greatly, showing an overall increasing trend. Forest land and other land generally showed a decreasing trend. The water area showed a trend of decreasing first and then increasing. (2) From 2000 to 2020, the comprehensive index of land use degree showed an overall upward trend, land use become more intensive and land use types become more single. (3) Chengdu was in the period of land development from 2000 to 2005, 2005 to 2010 and 2015 to 2020. From 2010 to 2015, the land was in recession. After a brief analysis, the main influences on land use structure were population change, natural factors and industrial adjustment and so on.
2021, 42(2): 82-86. doi: 10.12172/202008050001
Abstract:
In this paper, Mikania micrantha leaf spot pathogen was isolated and identified, and the morphology and molecular biology of the pathogen was carried out to determine the suitable growth temperature and host range of the pathogen. The pathogen of Mikania Micrantha leaf spot was identified as Boeremia Exigua., and the optimum temperature for mycelia growth was 27 °C. It was preliminarily found that the pathogen could infect mulberry trees, but not other tested crops.
2021, 42(2): 87-93. doi: 10.12172/202008210001
Abstract:
Bamboo-edible fungi intercropping has been widely reported to have significant economic benefits, but its effect on the ecology of bamboo forest and soil ecology is lack of research and evaluation. The edible fungi (Stropharia rugosannulata and Dictyophora indusiata) were intercropped under different types of bamboo forests (scattered, clustered and mixed bamboos) in the planting industrial park of Wugao Forest in Xuyong county. The changes of diameter at breast height, bamboo shoot quality, soil pH, soil organic matter, main nutrients, lignin and cellulose content of bamboo strips were determined and compared before and after intercropping. The results showed that the intercropping of edible fungi could promote bamboo growth, and facilitate the accumulation of free amino acids, soluble proteins and vitamin C in bamboo shoots. After intercropping, soil pH value and the available K content both increased, while the ammonium nitrogen content showed negligible variation or decreased to some extent. Meanwhile the nitrate nitrogen content increased, and the ratio of ammonium nitrogen to nitrate nitrogen decreased. The available P content only decreased significantly in the clustered bamboo forest, while the total N, P, K and organic matter content had almost no significant change. After planting the edible fungi (Dictyophora indusiata), lignin and cellulose in bamboo stump degraded slightly faster. The present study can provide basic data for the evaluation of ecological effects and scientific management of bamoo-edible fungi intercropping model.
2021, 42(2): 94-98. doi: 10.12172/202009090001
Abstract:
The seedling substrates were prepared with the fungal residue, mushroom residue, peat, chaff, field soil and slow-release fertilizer, and the effect of substrate with different formulas on the growth of container seedlings of Torreya grandis was carried out. The results showed that: (1) Different substrates with different formulas had significant effects on seedling height, ground diameter and biomass of the container seedlings of Torreya grandis. The average quality index of Torreya grandis seedling cultivated by the compound substrate with fungal residue or with mushroom residue was better than that of peat substrate. Among them, the compound substrate formula A2 with the volume ratio of 60∶20∶20 for fungal residue, chaff and field soil was the best for the seedling weight, ground diameter and root growth. (2) The compound substrate with fungal residue greatly reduced the cost of seedling cultivation, and the cost of compound substrate with fungal residue was only 35.8% of the cost of peat compound substrate. The application of mushroom residue substrate realized the recycling utilization of mushroom residue, greatly reduced the seedling cultivation cost and improved the seedling quality of Torreya grandis.
2021, 42(2): 99-102. doi: 10.12172/202009210005
Abstract:
The survival rate of afforestation with typical Sassafras tzumu is relatively low in the southeast coastal area. In this study, the stem of dry-rooted seedlings of Sassafras tzumu were cut off and afforested. The results showed that: (1) After two years of afforestation, the stem-cutting treatment significantly affected the survival rate, ground diameter, tree height, and growth indicators. Furthermore, except that the difference of tree height in the second year is significant, other indicators were extremely significant in different years and characteristics. (2) The stem-cutting treatment significantly improved the survival rate of Sassafras tzumu, which was 100% in the first year and 98% in the second year. Compared with the afforestation without stem-cutting treatment, the survival rate of the afforestation with stem-cutting was increased by 30.15%. (3) The stem-cutting treatment obviously promoted the growth of ground diameter, and the annual growth of ground diameter was over 29%. (4) The stem-cutting treatment greatly increased the shoot growth, with an increase of 222.78% in the first year and 94.49% in the second year. The results indicated that the stem-cutting afforestation had obvious effect in southeast coastal areas, and it was a promising afforestation method worth popularizing.
2021, 42(2): 103-109. doi: 10.12172/202009070002
Abstract:
Pawpaw [Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal] tree is a kind of fruit tree originated in North America. Its fruit is delicious, nutritious, rich in various mineral elements, vitamins and amino acids, and has high development and utilization value. At present, some domestic scientific research institutions have carried out the introduction and cultivation experiment, and have obtained success. Meanwhile, the nutrition component, propagation techniques, planting techniques, genetic diversity and other aspects of pawpaw trees were studied, and some progress was made. In this paper, the current research situation of introduced pawpaw trees was sorted out, the existing problems in the current research were analyzed, and the corresponding countermeasures were put forward, in order to provide some reference for the subsequent research and popularization of pawpaw trees.
2021, 42(2): 110-116. doi: 10.12172/202010060001
Abstract:
Three Callistethus species in China are reported for the first time, namely C. myanmarensis Fujioka & Kobayashi, 2012 from Yunnan, C. tumidicauda planicauda Fujioka & Kobayashi, 2012 from Yunnan, and C. vitricus Fujioka & Kobayashi, 2012 from Xizang and Yunnan. Finally, the description of the characteristics of newly recorded species, the key to the classification of 12 male species (including subspecies) distributed in China, and the colour photos of 9 species are provided.
2021, 42(2): 117-119. doi: 10.12172/202009240001
Abstract:
Based on field investigation and specimen identification, Blumea sinuata (Loureiro) Merrill (Asteraceae: Inuleae) are reported as a new record species in Sichuan Province, China. Description and specimen information are provided. This finding provides new materials for protection and rational utilization and development of wild medicinal resources in Sichuan.
2021, 42(2): 120-122. doi: 10.12172/202009270001
Abstract:
Lecanorchis japonica Bl., a newly recorded Orchidaceae species in Pingshan county, Yibin city, Sichuan Province, was reported. The voucher specimens were preserved in the Herbarium of the Laojunshan National Nature Reserve Conservation Center.
2021, 42(2): 123-124. doi: 10.12172/202008180001
Abstract:
Calanthe aristulifera Rchb.f., a newly recorded Orchidaceae species in Mount Emei, Sichuan province, was reported. The morphological descriptions and characteristic photos were provided. The voucher specimens were preserved in the Herbarium of Sichuan Provincial Institute of Natural Resources Science (SPINRS).